Tourism is one of the most important fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism can primarily be considered a service activity. One of the largest labor markets in the world economy lies in tourism. Every 15th person looks for and gets a job in the tourism sector. Tourist traffic and tourism are two concepts with essentially the same meaning, which include the subject of tourism – the tourist, and everything that depends on the tourist’s personal decision. It also includes the subject of tourism, i.e. the location, institutions, organizations and organizations of tourism.
Tourism assumes a peaceful, voluntary, regular and mass traffic. It is characterized by the fact that the participants – as consumers and users of various services – only temporarily stay in the visited place. Tourism, which has become a mass phenomenon, the concept of which grows every year, always takes place in a specific geographical environment. This geographical environment has natural, social, economic and cultural factors, also known as endowments. (e.g. multifaceted, species-rich wildlife, stable economy, cultural monuments.) Tourist facilities appear as an attraction for tourists. The driver of voluntary travel is therefore the attraction itself: interest in special landscapes, curiosity, the desire to search and discover the unknown. This is the attractiveness of the geographical environment, which makes people go on a journey without wasting money, time or effort.
The definition of tourism: “tourism includes all free changes of place of residence and workplace, as well as the services created to satisfy the needs arising from them” (WTO – World Tourism Organization, 1989).
The area visited by foreigners is called the receiving area of tourist traffic, the area from which they come, the sending area. Between the two is the transit area for tourist traffic, the so-called transit corridor. Tourism road transit traffic on these routes requires special reception capacity (border crossing, road, service, fuel, meals, accommodation).
Based on its appearance in time, tourism is continuous if there is no interruption in the application in the receiving area.
- Continuous tourist traffic is typical in well-prepared cities, health resorts, and areas with favorable climatic conditions throughout the year.
- Weekend tourism usually lasts from the afternoon of the last working day of the week to the morning of the first working day of the following week. Its special form is the so-called second home tourism – individuals with their own vacation home.
- Excursion and transit tourism usually means the visit of foreigners without the need for accommodation, but accompanied by consumption, in the host areas and in the areas that are in the routes of tourism.
Based on the way of organization, tourism can be grouped as economic, commercial and social tourism. Economic tourism refers to business and official travel, in which case the costs are borne by the sending or receiving institutions. In commercial tourism, all costs of travel and stay are covered by the traveler from their own financial resources, while the costs of participants in social tourism are partially or completely borne by state, corporate or social organizations. (e.g. paid leave).
From a technical point of view, the trip can be done individually or in groups, as well as self-organized or organized by a travel agency.
Based on the most frequent destinations: professional or economic tourism and vacation or holiday tourism.
Professional tourism brings guests who practice their profession and occupation during the trip. Here belongs:
- business tourism (deals, market research);
- convention tourism (conferences, symposiums);
- political tourism (diplomatic trips, persons working to establish international political-economic relations);
- study tourism (short-term study trips);
- sports and cultural tourism (spotters and artists of various competitions and events).
Those participating on vacation and leisure tourism travel at the expense of their own purchasing power during their free time. Their purposes can be multiple, as:
- city visit;
- green – hiker;
- participation in cultural or sports events;
- experience, adventure;
- practicing a hobby;
- visiting friends.
In resort tourism, the participants want to relax, have fun, and refresh themselves. Most of them live in cities and industrial settlements.
One of the oldest forms of tourism is curative tourism. Within this framework, the participants look for special spas with medical facilities and medical professionals for the purpose of rehabilitation, recreation, relaxation, i.e. to restore, protect, maintain their health or for complete physical and mental refreshment.
Other types of tourism: tourism with a religious motive, sports and cultural (museums, collecting ethnographic knowledge) tourism.
According to the behavioral characteristics of the participants in tourism, this can be divided into two groups: soft, gentle, ecotourism and aggressive tourism.