Course Content
Tourism is a thriving global industry, encompassing a wide array of experiences, destinations, and economic factors. In this module, we delve into the multifaceted world of tourism, exploring its diverse forms, the influences shaping its development, and the captivating natural and human-made attractions that draw travelers from around the world.
About Lesson

Touristic elements belonging to topography, climate, hydrography, and wildlife cannot be separated from the environment where they appeared and developed. The various landscape elements are closely related to each other and determine the tourism significance of a region. Based on these, different tourist landscapes were created, the most well-known are the following:

  • the karst landscape;
  • the landscape of the volcanic region;
  • landscape of high mountains; • landscape of hills;
  • the scenery of the beaches. 


a ) The karst landscape is characterized by a great variety of constituent elements. This landscape is characterized by the variety of surface forms (precipices, ridges, gorges), subsurface forms (caves), water network (lakes, karst springs, underground rivers), climate (subsurface climate), flora and fauna. The density of tourist objects can reach high values, which greatly increases tourism efficiency. The sources of the karst landscapes mainly develop recreational tourism, less medical tourism. The latter uses the thermal water sources and the climate of some caves.

b). The landscape of the volcanic regions is completely different from the former. Here, the most important forms are the volcanic cones, craters, volcanic plateaus, in the case of hydrography, the mineral water sources and crater lakes. Mofettas and sulfur eruptions appear as a result of post-volcanic operations. Curative tourism is typical for these landscapes. In the case of active volcanoes, visitation may increase, but the development of infrastructure is a problem.

c). The landscape of the high mountains is characterized by varied forms. The diversity of the rocks, their strong division, the erosion systems led to the formation of peaks, ridges, and chasms. The beauty of these landscapes is highlighted by lakes (glacial, tectonic, natural or artificial valley closing lakes), waterfalls. The diverse wildlife, the snow, the high mountains are an important tourist aspect.

d). The landscape of the hills is characterized by fragmentation and the easing of contrasts. The slight undulation of the surface results in a pleasant landscape. Hydrological reserves are especially important. Saltwater lakes on the Transylvanian plateau, hot waters on the Western hills. Among the mineral waters, salty and carbonated waters can be found here. A variety of tourism has developed in the hilly area, with an emphasis on curative tourism.

e). The landscape of the coasts has diverse sources, among which the water, the climate and the topography stand out. We can notice different types of coasts: high and low, Dalmatian, rias, funnel estuaries, deltas, fjords. The importance of the deltas (water pattern, vegetation, fauna) requires special attention. Low coasts are sought after because of the beach. The salt water of the sea, the mud of the salt lakes, the aerosol air, and the sunshine greatly increase the tourism value of this landscape.